The usage of interactive public displays has increased including the number of sensitive applications and, hence, the demand for user authentication methods.

We implement a calibration-free authentication method for situated displays based on saccadic eye movements which tackles the drawbacks of gaze-based authentications: they tend to be slow and prone to errors.

We received an honorable mention for our work EyeLogin on gaze-based authentication at ETRA 2021 for this work. [read the paper]

Figure 1: Interface of EyeLogin.

Figure 2: Interface of CueAuth [1].


In our implementation, we leverage the quick nature of saccadic eye movements between fixations from the center to a digit in the interface (see Figure 1). Fixating a digit and returning to the center triggers a digit entry.

Additionally, we implement CueAuth [1], an authentication method based on smooth pursuit eye movements: a digit is entered by following a moving digit stimuli  in the interface (See Figure 2).


In a user study (n=10), we compare our new method with  CueAuth from Khamis et al. [1].

Our evaluation shows that our method EyeLogin outperforms the baseline CueAuth in terms of accuracy and entry time.

MethodAccuracyEntry time
EyeLogin95.88%5.12 sec
Baseline82.94% 23.4 sec

Table 1: Results from our user study (𝑛 = 10) including the average accuracy of. PIN entry  and the average PIN entry time for EyeLogin and CueAuth.


Omair Shahzad Bhatti, Michael Barz, Daniel Sonntag: EyeLogin – Calibration-Free Authentication Method for Public Displays Using Eye Gaze. In: ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, Association for Computing Machinery, 2021.
Mohamed Khamis, Ludwig Trotter, Ville Mäkelä, Emanuel von Zezschwitz, Jens Le, Andreas Bulling, and Florian Alt. CueAuth: Comparing Touch, Mid-Air Gestures, and Gaze for Cue-based Authentication on Situated Displays. In: Proc. ACM Interact. Mob. Wearable Ubiquitous Technol. 2, 4, Article 174 (December 2018), 22 pages.